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La situación legal de desempleo

situacion legal de desempleo

Todas las prestaciones y subsidios por desempleo que gestiona el Servicio Público de Empleo Estatal protegen a aquellas personas que quieren y pueden trabajar y se hallan en desempleo. La situación legal de desempleo no se produce siempre, ya que para que sea considerada de como tal, y por consiguiente merezca la protección estatal, el trabajador deberá encontrarse en determinados supuestos. Este es unos de los requisitos imprescindibles que deberá acreditar la persona que quiera solicitar la prestación contributiva o los subsidios por desempleo.

1. ¿Cuándo se encuentra un trabajador en una situación legal de desempleo?

Según la Ley General de la Seguridad Social (Real Decreto Legislativo 1/1994), un trabajador se encontrará en situación legal de desempleo cuando su relación laboral:

A. Se extinga

Una relación laboral puede extinguirse por varias causas de entre las que podemos destacar las siguientes:

  • Se contemplan tanto los despidos procedentes como los improcedentes, además de los individuales y los colectivos.
  • Finalización del contrato.
  • No superar el período de prueba.
  • Por muerte, jubilación o incapacidad del empresario.

B. Se suspenda

Las relaciones laborales suelen suspenderse cuando la empresa realiza un ERE por ejemplo o en el caso de los trabajadores fijos discontinuos cuando se encuentran en el periodo de inactividad.

C. Se reduzca temporalmente

Ocurre en los casos de los expedientes de regulación de empleo de reducción por ejemplo.

También se encontrarán en situación legal de desempleo aquellas personas que:

  1. Regresen a España tras haber trabajado en determinados países en el extranjero y sean españoles.
  2. Los liberados de prisión que han estado sometidos a una pena privativa de libertad.
  3. Aquellas personas que cesen involuntariamente de un cargo en la corporación local, sindical y administración pública.

2. Supuestos que no se consideran en situación legal de desempleo

Además, la ley señala cuáles son aquellos supuestos que no serán considerados como situación legal de desempleo:

  1. Cuando la persona cese de forma voluntaria en el trabajo.
  2. Cuando sí se encuentren en alguno de los supuestos legales de desempleo pero no demuestren su disponibilidad para realizar una búsqueda activa de empleo y aceptar una oferta de colocación adecuada a través del compromiso de actividad al que debe obligarse.

Cuando el trabajador se encuentre en alguno de estos supuestos no podrá solicitar ningún tipo de prestación o subsidio puesto que encontrarse en situación legal de desempleo es un requisito imprescindible.

3. Cese de la relación laboral de forma voluntaria

Tal y como hemos visto en el apartado anterior, la persona que finaliza su relación laboral de forma voluntaria no se encuentra en situación legal de desempleo. Si posteriormente comienza en un nuevo trabajo, debe saber que deben haber transcurrido al menos tres meses desde que cesó de forma voluntaria y la finalización de esta última relación laboral siempre que haya terminado por alguno de los supuestos enumerados en el apartado 1. Dicho de otro modo, si desde que finaliza involuntariamente en su anterior trabajo y este nuevo no han transcurrido al menos tres meses, no podrá solicitar las prestaciones y subsidios por desempleo a los que podría tener derecho.

Consulta nuestra guía de ayudas para conocer todas las prestaciones y subsidios para desempleados previstas para el año 2022.

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