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¿Se cotiza en la Seguridad Social estando de baja?

se-cotiza-en-la-seguridad-social-estando-de-baja

¿Te acaban de dar de baja en el trabajo? Entonces quizás te preguntes si se cotiza en la Seguridad Social estando de baja. No busques más, ¡en este artículo tienes la respuesta!

1. ¿Se cotiza en la Seguridad Social estando de baja?

Un trabajador puede encontrarse de baja por enfermedad o por accidente. Esta situación se llama incapacidad temporal, e impide trabajar durante un plazo de tiempo determinado, debido a:

  • Una enfermedad común
  • Una enfermedad profesional
  • Un accidente no laboral
  • Un accidente laboral

La incapacidad temporal puede durar un máximo de un año, prorrogable por seis meses más. Pues bien, la empresa está obligada a cotizar hasta el día 545 de la baja, es decir, durante los 365 días iniciales, más los 180 de prórroga. Esto será así aunque la baja sea mediante mutua y no Seguridad Social.

La empresa tiene que cotizar durante todo el tiempo que dure la baja del trabajador.

2. ¿Qué derechos tiene el trabajador durante la baja?

Mientras que el trabajador está de baja por incapacidad temporal, su contrato queda suspendido, pero tiene derecho a una prestación económica. Hay que distinguir si la baja se debe a una enfermedad común o accidente no laboral, en cuyo caso se habla de contingencias comunes, o si es causada por enfermedad profesional o accidente laboral, siendo en ese caso contingencias profesionales:

  • Cuando es por contingencias comunes, la prestación comienza el mismo día de la baja médica
  • Si se trata de contingencias profesionales, empezará el día siguiente a la baja médica

3. ¿Cuáles son los requisitos para obtener la prestación?

El trabajador debe reunir los siguientes requisitos para conseguir la prestación:

  • Estar afiliado a la Seguridad social y en alta, o en situación asimilada al alta.
  • En caso de que la incapacidad temporal se deba a enfermedad común, tendrá que tener cotizados 180 días dentro de los 5 años anteriores. Si se deriva de accidente, laboral o no, o enfermedad profesional, no necesitará ningún período de cotización previo.

4. ¿Quién paga la baja del trabajador?

Esto depende de cuál haya sido la situación que haya producido la incapacidad temporal

Enfermedad común o accidente no laboral

Para calcular la prestación por incapacidad temporal en estos casos, hay que partir de la base reguladora diaria, dividiendo la base de cotización del trabajador del mes anterior por el número de días a los que se refiere dicha cotización. Se diferencian cuatro tramos para calcular la cuantía concreta del subsidio diario:

  • Durante los tres primeros días no hay derecho a subsidio.
  • Del día 4 al 15, el subsidio corre a cargo de la empresa o del empleador, por una cuantía del 60% de la base reguladora.
  • Del 16 al 20, el subsidio corresponde a la entidad gestora, también en un 60% de la base reguladora.
  • Desde el día 21 en adelante, el subsidio aumenta al 75% de la base reguladora, y sigue a cargo de la entidad gestora.

El Convenio Colectivo aplicable al sector puede complementar este subsidio a cargo de la empresa hasta determinado porcentaje del salario que recibe el trabajador cuando se encuentra en activo. También conviene revisar si en el contrato existe este complemento.

De modo que el empresario tiene un coste por la cantidad que tiene que asumir del salario del trabajador de baja. A este debe sumar el coste de Seguridad Social que le corresponde por el trabajador.

Enfermedad profesional o accidente laboral

En este caso, la prestación corre a cargo de la entidad gestora. No obstante, el día del accidente se considerará trabajado, por lo que es la empresa la encargada de abonarlo de forma íntegra. La base reguladora diaria se obtiene dividiendo la base de cotización del mes anterior por los días cotizados ese mes. Pero debe incluirse la base de cotización por horas extraordinarias, si existiera.

También aquí habrá que revisar el Convenio Colectivo y el contrato laboral, para comprobar si se ha establecido el derecho a percibir un complemento del subsidio a cargo de la empresa.

¿Qué ocurre en el caso de un trabajador con contrato a tiempo parcial?

Si se trata de un trabajador a tiempo parcial, la base reguladora diaria se obtiene dividiendo la suma de las bases de cotización de los tres meses anteriores a la fecha de la baja, entre el número de días efectivamente trabajados, y por consiguiente, cotizados en ese período.

Hay que tener en cuenta que el subsidio tan solo se genera en los días en que el trabajador hubiese estado obligado a prestar servicios efectivos en la empresa, en caso de no estar de baja.

Como hemos visto, en caso de baja por enfermedad común o accidente no laboral, se requiere reunir un período de 180 días dentro de los 5 años anteriores. Pues bien, estos días se deben computar según las horas cotizadas, realizando su equivalencia en días cotizados, o bien elevar los 180 días en la misma proporción en que hubiera quedado reducida la jornada con respecto a la jornada completa.

Más información

En el siguiente artículo te ofrecemos más información relacionada con este tema:

Cómo solicitar la incapacidad temporal tras una baja médica

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