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¿Cuál es la pensión mínima? [Guía completa 2022]

pension-minima

¿Cuál es la pensión mínima en España? ¿Cuántos años hay que cotizar para cobrar esa pensión mínima? En esta guía encontrarás toda la información sobre la pensión mínima contributiva y no contributiva en 2022.

1. El sistema de pensiones en España

En España, a la hora de calcular el importe de una pensión deben tenerse en cuenta los siguientes factores:

  • Las bases de cotización de los últimos años de la vida laboral. Para conseguir la base reguladora (con la que se calcula el importe de la pensión) hay que partir de las bases de cotización de los últimos años de la vida laboral (que serán los 25 últimos años a partir de 2022).
  • El total del período cotizado a la Seguridad Social. A partir de 2027 se exigirá un período de cotización de al menos 37 años para cobrar una pensión del 100% de la base reguladora.
  • La edad de jubilación. En 2022, la edad de jubilación es de 65 años para quien haya cotizado al menos 37 años.

2. ¿Qué es el complemento a mínimos?

A lo largo de los últimos tiempos se han endurecido los requisitos para acceder a una pensión. Es por ello que muchas personas podrían llegar a verse con una pensión demasiado pequeña, e incluso que no fuera suficiente para cubrir las necesidades básicas.

Es por ello que la ley prevé una pensión mínima que pueda asegurar que todas las personas en este país reciben una prestación suficiente para hacer frente a esas mínimas necesidades. Así pues, si la pensión que te corresponde por tus aportaciones a la Seguridad Social no llega el mínimo establecido, el Estado complementa esa cantidad hasta llegar a ese tope.

Dicha cantidad extra aportada por el Estado es lo que llamamos complemento a mínimos. No obstante, no todos los pensionistas tienen derecho a este complemento, siendo necesario demostrar que se carece de rentas superiores a una cantidad determinada (que será mayor o menor según se tenga cónyuge o no) y acreditar que se reside en España.

3. Cálculo de la pensión mínima de jubilación en 2022

pension-minima-2022

Vamos a ver cuál es la pensión mínima de jubilación en 2022 en cada caso:

Después de los 65 años

La pensión de jubilación mínima con 65 años queda así en estos momentos:

Con 65 o más años Cuantía mensual en 2022 Cuantía anual
Con cónyuge a cargo 843,32 11.806,51
Sin cónyuge 683,50 9.569
Con cónyuge no a cargo 648,69 9.081,66

Antes de los 65 años

Estas son las cuantías de la pensión mínima de jubilación con menos de 65 años:

Menos de 65 años Cuantía mensual 2022 Cuantía anual
Con cónyuge a cargo 790,65 11.069,10
Sin cónyuge 639,40 8.951,60
Con cónyuge no a cargo 604,39 8.461,47

Procedente de gran invalidez

Cuando la pensión es por gran invalidez, las cuantías son estas:

Gran invalidez con 65 años Cuantía mensual 2022 Cuantía anual
Con cónyuge a cargo 1.264,98 17.709,76
Sin cónyuge 1.025,24 14.353,36
Con cónyuge no a cargo 973,08 13.623,12

Con Incapacidad Permanente Absoluta

En caso de Incapacidad Permanente Absoluta las cantidades son las que vemos a continuación:

IPA Cuantía mensual 2022 Cuantía anual
Con cónyuge a cargo 843,32 11.806,48
Sin cónyuge 683,50 9.569
Con cónyuge no a cargo 648,69 9.081,66

Con Incapacidad Permanente Total

Si la pensión es por Incapacidad Permanente Total, las cuantías son estas:

IPT con 65 años Cuantía mensual 2022 Cuantía anual
Con cónyuge a cargo 843,32 11.806,51
Sin cónyuge (unidad familiar unipersonal) 683,49 9.568,95
Con cónyuge NO a cargo 648,68 9.081,60

 

 IPT con entre 60 y 64 años Cuantía mensual 2022 Cuantía anual
Con cónyuge a cargo 790,65 11.069,13
Sin cónyuge 639,40 8.951,64
Con cónyuge no a cargo 604,39 8.3461,47

 

IPT derivada de enfermedad común con menos de 60 años Cuantía mensual 2022 Cuantía anual
Con cónyuge a cargo 499,40 6.991,60
Sin cónyuge 499,40 6.991,60
Con cónyuge no a cargo 495 56.930

Orfandad

La pensión mínima en España por orfandad queda así en 2022:

Cuantía mensual 2022 Cuantías anuales
Por beneficiario 208,90 2.924,6
Por beneficiario con menos de 18 años y discapacidad de al menos el 65% 411 5.754
Orfandad absoluta
Un único beneficiario 726 10.173,8
Varios beneficiarios (N) 208,9+517,8 2.924,6+7.249,2/N

Favor de familiares

Veamos cuáles son las cantidades por pensión mínima a favor de familiares:

Cuantía mensual 2022 Cuantías anuales
Por beneficiario 208,90 2.924,6
Si no hay viuda, huérfano ni pensionistas
Un único beneficiario de 65 años 504,8 7.067,2
Un único beneficiario con menos de 65 años 475,8 6.661,2
Varios beneficiarios (N) 208,9+308,9/N 2.924,6+4.324,6/N

Seguro Obligatorio de Vejez e Invalidez (SOVI)

Ahora vamos a ver cuáles son las cantidades establecidas por Seguro Obligatorio de Vejez e Invalidez (SOVI):

Pensiones SOVI Cuantía mensual 2022 Cuantía anual
Vejez, invalidez y viudedad 437,70 6.127,80
Prestaciones SOVI concurrentes 424,80 5.947,20

Pensión no contributiva íntegra mínima

En 2022 se ha establecido una pensión mínima no contributiva íntegra de 395,52 euros al mes. Esto es en el caso de personas sin más ingresos y sin personas a su cargo, ya que en casos contrarios a este habría que calcular el importe hasta los topes establecidos.

4. ¿Cuál es el límite de ingresos para la pensión mínima?

pension-minima-2022

Los límites de ingresos para la pensión mínima en cada caso son los siguientes:

Límite de ingresos (pensión no incluida) Cuantía anual
Con cónyuge a cargo 8.909
Sin cónyuge 7.638
Con cónyuge no a cargo 7.638

Más información

En las siguientes entradas encontrarás información relacionada con este tema y que te puede resultar también de gran utilidad, ¡no dudes en echarles un vistazo!

¿Tengo derecho a pensión de jubilación si no he cotizado nunca?

La jubilación de los autónomos, calcula tu pensión

¿Cuál es la pensión máxima de jubilación en España?

La pensión no contributiva en 2022

La pensión de viudedad: Requisitos, solicitud y cuantías

 

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