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Ayuda para el cuidado de hijos menores con enfermedad grave

La acción protectora de la Seguridad Social contempla un subsidio o ayuda para el cuidado de menores que estén afectados por cáncer o alguna de las enfermedades graves que se recogen en Real Decreto 1148/2011 y tiene la finalidad de compensar la pérdida de ingresos de los progenitores que se ven obligados a reducir su jornada de trabajo: la Prestación económica por cuidado de menores afectados por cáncer u otra enfermedad grave.

cuidado de menores

1. ¿Cuál es la situación protegida?

La situación que protege la Seguridad Social es la reducción de la jornada de trabajo a la que se ven obligadas los progenitores, adoptantes o acogedores por la necesidad de atender a un menor que se encuentra afectado por cáncer o una enfermedad grave que se halle incluida en el listado establecido en el Real Decreto 1148/2011 que impliquen un ingreso hospitalario de larga duración y un tratamiento continuado de la enfermedad aunque se realice en el domicilio.

Esta reducción de jornada a la que se ven sometidos los progenitores, adoptantes, acogedores y conlleva la pérdida de los correspondientes ingresos, y por tanto, se convierte en un grave perjuicio para estas personas. Por ello, la Seguridad Social establece el subsidio para el cuidado de menores con el objetivo de paliar la disminución de rentas.

En los casos de recaída del menor, no será necesario acreditar un nuevo ingreso hospitalario, sino que lo informes médicos darán cuenta de la necesidad de la continuación del tratamiento y cuidado permanente del menor.

2. Requisitos

Los requisitos que deben cumplirse para poder solicitar el subsidio son los siguientes:

  1. Ser progenitor o adoptante de los hijos o acogedores de menores que sean menores de dieciocho años y que se encuentren afectados por cáncer u otra enfermedad grave y que requieran, además, un cuidado permanente y continuo.
  2. Progenitores, adoptantes o acogedores que se vean obligados a reducir su jornada de trabajo en un 50% como mínimo.
  3. Ambos progenitores, acogedores o adoptantes deben estar en situación de alta en la Seguridad Social.
  4. Justifiquen las cotizaciones exigidas:
Menores de 21 años No necesitan cotización mínima
Entre 21 y 25 años 90 días en los siete años anteriores a la solicitud o 180 en toda la vida laboral
Entre 26 años o más 180 días en los siete años anteriores a la solicitud o 360 días en toda su vida laboral
  1. Los trabajadores autónomos y aquellos que estén obligados a cotizar a la Seguridad Social deben encontrarse al corriente de pago de las correspondientes cuotas.

3. ¿Cuál de los dos progenitores podrá acogerse?

El beneficiario del subsidio para el cuidado de menores solamente podrá ser uno de los dos progenitores, adoptantes o acogedores.

Podrán también alternarse el cobro del subsidio siempre que sea de mutuo acuerdo por ambas partes.

En los casos de separación, divorcio o nulidad podrán determinarlo ellos de mutuo acuerdo y a falta de este acuerdo, se le reconocerá  a quien tenga atribuida la custodia del menor. Si la custodia es compartida podrá ser beneficiario quien lo solicite en primer lugar.

4. Documentación necesaria

La solicitud del subsidio para el cuidado de menores deberá presentarse dentro de los tres meses siguientes a la reducción de la jornada. Deberá aportarse el modelo oficial de solicitud junto con la documentación que el mismo impreso señala:

1.       DNI, Pasaporte o equivalente, NIE
2.       Certificado de empresa en el que consten las bases de cotización por contingencias profesionales
3.       Certificado de empresa en el que conste la fecha de la reducción de la jornada
4.       Documentos de cotización de los últimos meses
5.       En el caso de trabajadores responsables del ingreso de cuotas deberán aportar una declaración de la reducción de su jornada
6.       Libro de familia o certificado de inscripción de los hijos en el Registro Civil
7.       Declaración de la hospitalización del menor con la fecha de ingreso
8.       En los casos de acogimiento o adopción, acogimiento o tutela es necesario adjuntar la correspondiente resolución administrativa o judicial
9.       Los trabajadores autónomos deberán acreditar mediante una declaración la reducción de su jornada profesional
10.   Otros documentos que sean necesarios en su caso

5. ¿Qué cuantía percibiré?

La cuantía a percibir corresponderá  al 100% de la base reguladora  que se establezca para la prestación de incapacidad temporal.

6. Suspensión y extinción del subsidio

El subsidio se extingue en los siguientes casos:

  1. Cuando el trabajador se reincorpore plenamente a su jornada laboral.
  2. Si deja de existir la necesidad de cuidado permanente y continuo del menor.
  3. Si alguno de los progenitores, adoptantes o acogedores entre en situación de desempleo.
  4. Si el menor afectado cumple la mayoría de edad.
  5. Por el fallecimiento del menor o del beneficiario del subsidio.

Los casos en los que queda suspendido el subsidio son los que a continuación se detallan:

  1. Descanso por maternidad o paternidad.
  2. Riesgo de embarazo o lactancia.
  3. Si la persona que se encarga del cuidado del menor no puede hacerse cargo de él por encontrarse en una situación de incapacidad temporal o nacimiento de nuevo hijo. En este caso podrán acogerse al subsidio el otro progenitor.
  4. Se suspenderá al progenitor que esté percibiendo el subsidio cuando se le reconozca al otro.

Más Información:

Puedes seguirnos en twitter para conocer todos los artículos que publicamos semanalmente acerca de las prestaciones y subsidios que se gestionan desde el ministerio de empleo y la seguridad social.

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